MATERI B INGGRIS-TOEFL-READING COMPREHENSION

READING COMPREHENSION

Section 3 dalam ujian TOEFL adalah Reading comprehension. Ini digunakan untuk mengukur kemempuan peserta ujian dalam memahami teks tertulis dalam bahasa inggris. Bagian ini mengujikan setidaknya 5 bacaan, dimana masing-masing bacaan biasanya terdiri dari sepuluh pertanyaan. Sehingga pertanyaan pada bagian ini berjumlah limapuluh pertanyaan. Anda harus menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan dalam waktu limapuluh menit. Bagian ini hanya mengujikan teks bacaan saja, tanpa gambar, diagram, atau alat Bantu visual lainnya.

Tema bacaan yang diujikan dalam bagian ini cukup bervariasi, namun secara umum berkaitan dengan materi perkuliahan yang diajarkan oleh universitas-universitas di Amerika Serikat. Misalnya, sejarah, sastra, seni, arsitektur, geologi, biologi, kesehatan, astronomi, geografi, dan seterusnya. Adapun pertanyaan pada section 3 bisa dikategorikan ke dalam dua bentuk pertanyaan sebagai berikut:
Reading comprehensionPada section 3 ini anda akan diminta untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan informasi yang terdapat pada teks bacaan. Mulai dari main idea, bagian bacaan yang lebih rinci, sampai inferasi atau penyimpulan atas informasi yang terdapat pada bacaan.
VocabularySection 3 juga meminta anda untuk menjawab arti dari kata-kata tertentu yang terdapat pada teks bacaan. Namun apabila anda sama sekali tidak tahu arti kata-kata tertentu, anda masih tetap bias mengetahui arti kata-kata tersebut dengan memahami konteks bacaan. Dengan demikian anda bias memperkirakan arti dari kata-kata yang ditanyakan dalam soal.

Permasalahan yang biasa dihadapi oleh peserta tes TOEFL dalam ujian Reading Comprehension adalah batasan waktu yang singkat. Banyak peserta tes yang tidak bias menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan ketika waktu yang disediakan telah habis. Untuk itu

Berbagai kemampuan yang dibutuhkan dalam reading harus anda kuasai sebelum benar-benar menjalankan ujian TOEFL. Sekalipun demikian, Anda masih berpeluang untuk mendapatkan skor TOEFL yang lebih tinggi apabila menguasai trik-trik taktis. Berikut disajikan beberapa kunci yang bisa membantu anda berkompetisi dengan waktu yang ketat sekaligus untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.
Kunci umum
Kunci 1: Jangan terlalu lama membaca teks bacaan.Harus diingat bahwa anda tidak memiliki cukup waktu untuk membaca teks bacaan secara mendalam. Pertanyaan yang muncul dalam tes reading ini umumnya dpat dijawab secara tepat dengan tanpa langsung membaca bacaan secara rinci. Anda dapat mengalokasikan satu atau dua menit untuk membaca main idea pada masing-masing paragraph dari sebuah bacaan sebelum mulai membaca pertanyaan. Dengan demikian anda sudah mendapatkan gambaran sekilas tentang informasi yang disampaikan oleh bacaan.
Kunci 2 : Perhatikan semua pertanyaan yang terdapat pada sebuah bacaaan dan ingat-ingat kata kuncinya.Setelah membaca sekilas main idea masing-masing paragraph, selanjutnya anda harus segera membaca pertanyaan pada soal-soal yang terdapat pada bacaan tersebut. Rekamlah kata-kata kunci pada masing-masing pertanyaan pada pikiran anda sehingga anda dapat mencari jawabannya pada bacaan dengan sekali tempo untuk beberapa pertanyaan. Anda juga dapat memeberi tanda pada kata kunci di lembar soal, karena anda tidak dilarang memberikan coretan. Cara ini sangat efektif untuk menghemat waktu, sehingga pandangan anda tidak bolak-balik antara teks bacaan dengan pertanyaaan.
Kunci 3 : Jangan panic apabila tema bacaan bukan merupakan disiplin yang anda kuasai..Ujian TOEFL sudah didisai sedemikian rupa sehingga peserta ujian tidak dipersyaratkan untuk menguasai tema-tema dari disiplin ilmu tertentu. Semua informasi yang ditanyakan dalam soal section 3 sudah tersedia dalam teks bacaan. Sehingga apapun latar belakang keilmuan yang anda kuasai anda akan tetap dapat menjawab soal-soal pada bacaan yang sama sekali berbeda dari disiplin anda.

KUNCI KHUSUS

Materi yang diujikan dalam tes reading biasanya memiliki pola-pola dan standar tertentu. Biasanya anda diminta untuk mengetahui tema bacaaan, menentukan main idea, mengetahui arti dari kosakata tertentu, mengetahui informasi tertentu, melakukan penyimpulan, melakukan identifikasi ats pengecualian-pengecualian dan mengetahui rujukan dari pronoun tertentu.

Untuk membekali diri anda dalam mengahadapi are apersoalan yang diujikan dalam reading tes, perhatikan kunci-kunci berikut ini :
Kunci 4 : Lakukan previewing untuk mengetahui topic bacaan..Topik merupakan salah satu item yang hampir dapat dipastikan keluar pada setiap tes TOEFL. Untuk mengetahui topic sebuah bacaan, anda tidak perlu membaca secara detail dan mendalam. Anda cukup membaca kalimat pertama dan terakhir pada tiap-tiap paragraph bacaan. Anda tidak dituntut untuk memahami bacaan secara rinci melainkan hanya untuk menentukan topic, oleh karena nya anda harus membaca secepat mungkin.
Kunci 5 : Perhatikan kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph untuk mengetahui main idea.Tes reading sering kali mengujikan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan main idea. Main idea biasanya terdapat pada kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph. Dengan mengetahuinya, anda dapat memahami pesan apa yang ingin disampaikan oleh penulis. Main Idea dari sebuah bacaan biasanya terdapat pada dua kalimat pertama.
Kunci 6 : Pahamilah konteks yang terdapat pada bacaan untuk mengetahui arti kata tertentu.Konteks dalam bacaan bahasa Inggris adalah kombinasi dari kosakata dan grammar yang digunakan pada sebuah kata. Ia dapat berupa sebuah kalimat, paragraph, atau bacaan. Dengan memahami sebuah konteks anda akan dapat memperkirakan arti sebuah kata. Karena dengan mengetahui arti secara umum dari sebuah kalimat berarti anda juga memahami arti kata-kata yang terdapt pada kalimat tersebut.
Kunci 7 : Lakukan scanning untuk menemukan informasi tertentu yang berkaitan dengan permintaan soal.

Sebuah teks bacaan dalam ujian TOEFL biasanya diikuti dengan sepuluh pertanyaan, karena batasan waktu yang sangat mendesak sebaiknya anada membaca kesepuluh pertanyaan tersebut. Ketika membaca semua pertanyaan anda harus menemukan kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan dan merekamnya dalam pikiran. Bacalah secara cepat dengan cara scanning untuk menemukan kata-kata tertentu yang menjadi kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan. Hal ini sngat berguna dalam melakukan klarifikasi pada teks bacaan untuk menemukan informasi yang ditanyakan. Dengan mengingat semua kata kunci pertanyaan, pandangan, dan focus anda tidak perlu terpecah untuk mencocokkan pertanyaan dengan teks. Karena biasanya urutan nomor soal tidak menanyakan kalimat atau bagian dari teks secara berurutan. Sehingga bila anda hnaya membaca satu pertanyaan kemudian mencarinya di teks bacaan akan menghabiskan banyak waktu karena anda perlu melakukan hal yang sama berkali-kali.
Kunci 8 : Kumpulkan fakta dan data dalam bacaan untuk melakukan inferasi atau penyimpulanTidak semua jawaban dari sebuah pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL dapat ditemukan secara langsung dalam teks bacaan. Hal ini karena informasi yang dimaksud tidak secara eksklusif disebutkan dalam sebuah pernyataan langsung. Sering kali dlam ujian reading anda diminta untuk membuat kesimpulan mengenai informasi tertentu. Untuk itu ketika membaca teks sebaiknya anda memberikan perhatian khusus terhada data atau fakta tertentu yang mengarah pada sebuah kesimpulan yang informative. Lagi-lagi dalam hal ini mengetahui kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan terlebih dahulu merupakan sebuah keuntungan tersendiri. Dengan berbekal kata kunci anda akan menentukan data dan fakta apa yang patut and apilih dan kump[ulkan untuk membuat sebuah kesimpulan.
Kunci 9: Berkonsentrasi selama membaca teks bacaan.Konsentrasi sangat diperlukan dan merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan yang paling menentukan dalam readng test. Sering kali peserta ujian lupa dengan apa yang telah disampaikan oleh kalimat atau paragraph sebelumnya ketika ia mula membaca kalimat atau paragraph baru. Akhirnya ia membaca ulang lagi kalimat tersebut. Apabila ini juga terjadi pada anda, langlah berikut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk meminimalisasi kek\salahan tersebut.
Ketika anada membaca sebuah kalimat, latihlah didri anda untuk menerka atau memperkirakan apa isi atau informasi yang akan disampaikan oleh kalimat selanjutnya.Perhatikan kesesuaian sebuah teks dengan judul atau main idea yang sudah anda ketahui sebelumnya, dengan cara ini anda tetap dapat menangkap pesan untama yang diasampaikan oleh masing-masing kalimat sekalipun anda sudah beranjak pada kalimat-kalimat berikutnya.Kunci 10 : Tingkatkan kecepatan membaca anda.Dengan keterbatasan waktu ujian yang singkat, maka kemampuan anda untuk membaca secara cepat dan singkat sangat penting dalam ujian TOEFL. Memang kecepatan membaca ini tidaklah sesuatu yang instant. Melainkan ia harus dilatih secara terus menerus apalagi membaca teks yang bukan bahasa asli kita. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan memilih kata-kata yang paling penting dalam sebuah kalimat, yang mana hal ini akan memberikan anda ringkasan atas arti sebuah bacaan.

Selanjutnya pelajarilah beberapa jenis pertnyaan dalam TOEFL berikut !


1. ANSWER MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS CORRECTLYUntuk menjawab main idea/ topic sentence/ title atau semacam itu caranya dengan melihat kalimat pertama dan atau kedua. Pahami baik-baik, ambil kesimpulan awal, terka kira-kira apa yang akan dibicarakan dalam teks berdasarkan kalimat pertama/kedua tersebut. Segera baca secara cepat kalimat-kalimat berikutnya untuk memastikan dugaan anda/ main idea/ topic sentence/ title nya.

The passage

In the philosophy of John Dewey, a sharp distinction is made between “intelligence” and “ reasoning”. According to Dewey, intelligence is the only absolute way to achieve a balance between realism and idealism, between practicality and wisdom of life. Intelligence involves “ interacting with other things and knowing them”. While reasoning is merely the act of an observer “ ….a mind that beholds or grasps objects outside the world of things …” With reasoning, level of mental certainty can be achieved, but it is through intelligence that control is taken of events that shapes one’s life.

The question

What is the topic of this passage?
The intelligence of John Dewey.Distinction made by John Dewey.Dewey’s ideas on the ability of reason.How intelligence differs from reasoning in Dewey’s work.


2. RECOGNIZE THE ORGANIZATION OF IDEAS

Dalam tes reading seringkali akn ada pertanyaan tentang pengorganisasioan ide-ide dalam teks pada jenis pertanyaan ini anda akan diminta untuk menentukan bagaimana ide-ide dalam paragraph berhubungan dengan ide-ide lain dalam paragraph lain.
Example

The passage :

If asked who invented the game of baseball, most Americans would probably reply that it was Abher Doubleday. At the beginning of this century, there was some disagreement over how the game of baseball had actually originated, so sporting-goods manufacturer Spaulding inaugurated a commission to research the question. In 1908 a report was published by the commission in which Abner Doubleday, a U.S Army officer from Cooperstown, New York, was given credit for the invention of the game. The National Baseball Hall of Fame was established in Cooperstown in honor of Doubleday.

Today, most sports historians are in agreement that Doubleday really did not have much to do with the development of baseball. Instead, baseball seems to be a close relation to the English game of rounders and probably has English rather than American roots.

The question

The second paragraph

(A) provides examples to support the ideas in the first paragraph

(B) precedes the ideas in the first paragraph

(C) outlines the effects of ideas in the first paragraph

(D) refuses the ideas in the first paragraph

TOEFL EXERCISE

PASSAGE ONE (QUESTIONS 1-2)

Conflict within an organization is not always viewed as undesirable, various managers have widely divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have.

According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization. Managers with this traditional view of conflict see it as their role in an organization to rid the organization of any possible sources of conflict.

The interactionist view of conflict on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and causing positive changes to occur. Managers who hold an interactionist view of conflict may actually take steps to stimulate within the organization.

1. How is the information in the passage organized?

(A) The origin of ideas about conflict is presented.

(B) Contrasting views of conflicts are presented.

(C) Two theorists discuss the strength and weaknesses of their views on conflict.

(D) Examples of conflict within organizations are presented

2. What type of information is included in the third paragraph?

(A) A comparison of the interactionist and traditional views of conflict

(B) A discussion of the weaknesses of the interactionist view of conflict

(C) An outline of the type of manager who prefers the interactionist view of conflict

(D) A description of one of the opposing views of conflict

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4)

IQ, or intelligence Quotient as the radio of a patron’s mental age to chronological age, with the radio multiplied by 100 remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define.

In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual’s ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence.

In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus at to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test makers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence.

3. What type of information is included in the first paragraph?

(A) An argument

(B) A definition

(C) An opinion

(D) A theory

4. How does the information in the third paragraph differ from that in the second paragraph?

(A) It presents a contrasting point of view.

(B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph.

(C) It presents real information rather than a premise.

(D) It presents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6)

The largest lake in the western United sates in the Great Salt Lake, an island saltwater lake in northwestern Utah, is just outside the state capital of Salt Lake City. Rivers and streams feed into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it, this has a major influence on both the salt content and the size of the lake.

Although the Great Lake was fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than the oceans of the world. The salt comes from the more than two million tons of minerals that flow into the lake each year from the rivers and creeks that feed it. Sodium and chloride-the components of salt- comprise the large majority of the lake’s mineral content.

The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square miles, depending on long term weather conditions. During periods of heavy rains, the size of the lake can swell tremendously from the huge amount of water flowing into the lake from its Feeder Rivers and streams; in 1980 the lake even reached a size of 2,400 square miles. During periods of dry weather, the size of the lake decreases, sometimes drastically, due to evaporation.

5. How is the information in the passage organized?

(A) Two unusual characteristics of the Great Lake are discussed.

(B) Contrasting theories about the Great Salt Lake’s salt levels are presented.

(C) The process by which the Great Salt Lake gets its salt is outlined.

(D) The reasons for the variation in the Great Salt Lake’s size are given.

6. The third paragraph contains information on …

(A) how the size of the lake affects weather conditions

(B) the effects of contrasting weather conditions on the size of the lake

(C) the effects of changes in the size of the lake

(D) the causes of the varied weather conditions in the area of the lake

Common types of calendars can be based on the Sun or on the Moon. The solar calendar is based on the solar year. Since the solar year is 362.2422 days long, solar calendars consist of regular years of 365 days and have an extra day every fourth year, or leap year, to make up for the additional fractional amount. In a solar calendar, the waxing and waning of the moon can take place at various stages of each month.

The lunar calendar is synchronized to the lunar month rather than the solar year. Since the lunar month is twenty-nine and thirty days. A twelve-month lunar year thus has 354 days, 11 days shorter than a solar year.

Solar eclipse

Lunar eclipse

1. What is the main idea of the passage?

(A) All calendars are the same.

(B) The solar calendar is based on the sun.

(C) Different calendars have dissimilar bases.

(D) The lunar month is twenty-nine and a half days long.

2. How is the information in the passage organized?

(A) Characteristics of the solar calendar are outlined.

(B) Two types of calendars are described.

(C) The strengths and weakness of the lunar calendar are described.

(D) The length of each existing calendar is contrasted.

Vaccines are prepared from harmful viruses or bacteria and administered to patients to provide immunity to specific diseases. The various types of vaccines are classified according to the method by which they are derived.

The most basic class of vaccines actually contains disease-causing microorganisms that have been killed with a solution containing formaldehyde. In this type of vaccine, the microorganisms are dead and therefore cannot cause disease; however, the antigens found in and on the microorganisms can still stimulate the formation of antibodies. Examples of this type of vaccine are the ones that fight influenza, typhoid fever, and cholera.

A second type of vaccine contains the toxins produced by the microorganisms rather than the microorganisms themselves. This type of vaccine is prepared when the microorganism itself does little damage but the toxin within microorganism is extremely harmful. For example, the bacteria that cause diphtheria can thrive without much harm, but when toxins are released from the bacteria, muscles can become paralyzed and death can ensue.

A final type of toxin contains living microorganisms that have been rendered harmless. With this type of vaccine, a large number of antigen molecules are produced and the immunity that results is generally longer lasting than the immunity from other types of vaccines. The Sabin oral antipolio vaccine and BCG vaccine against tuberculosis are examples of this type of vaccine.

3. Which of the following expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) Vaccines provide immunity to specific diseases.

(B) Vaccines contain disease-causing microorganisms.

(C) Vaccines are derived in different ways.

(D) New approaches in administering vaccines are being developed.

4. How many types of vaccines are presented in the passage?

(A) two

(B) three

(C) four

(D) five
Dalam tes reading anda seringkali akan diminta untuk menentukan jawaban yang tidak disebutkan atau tidak benar dalam teks. Jenis pertanyaan ini berarti bahwa ada tiga pilihan yang disebutkan atau benar dalam teks, sementara satu pilihan tidak. Jadi tugas anda adlah menemukan tiga pilihan yang benar kemudian memilih satu pilihan yang tersisa yang menjadi jawaban pada soal.

Anda harus memperhatikan bahwa ada dua macam pilihan atas pertanyaan ini :
Tiga pilihan benar dan satu tidak dibahas dalam teks.tiga jawaban benar dan satu salah menurut teks.The passage:

In English there are many different kinds of expressions that people use to give a name to anything whose name is unknown or momentarily forgotten. The word gadget is one such word. It was first used by British sailors in the 1850’s and probably came from the French word gachette, which was a small hook. In everyday use, the word has a more general meaning. Other words are also used to give a name to something, unnamed or unknown and these words tend to be somewhat imaginative. Some of the more commonly used expressions are a what-d’ye-call-it, a whatsis, a thingamabob, a thingamajig, a doodad, or a doohickey.

1. Which of the following is NOT true about the word “gadget” ?

(A) It is used to name something when the name is not known

(B) It was used at the beginning of the nineteenth century

(C) It most likely came from a word in the French language.

(D) It’s first known use was by British sailors.
Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an expression for something that is not known?(A) a thingamabob

(B) gadget

(C) A doohickey

(D) A what-is-it

Passage one (question 1-2)

Blood plasma is a clear, almost colorless liquid. It consists of blood from which the red and white blood cells have been removed. It is often used in transfusions because a patient generally needs the plasma portion of the blood more than the other components.

Plasma differs in several important ways from whole blood. First of all, plasma can be mixed for all donors and does not have to be from the right blood group, as whole blood does. In addition, plasma can be dried and stored, while whole blood cannot.

.
All of the following are true about blood plasma EXCEPT……(A). it is a deeply colored liquid

(B). blood cells have taken out of it

(C). patients are often transfused with it

(D). it is generally more important to the patient than other part of whole blood’

2. Which of the following is NOT stated about whole blood?

(A). it is different from plasma

(B). it cannot be dried

(C). it is impossible to keep in storage for a long time.

(D). it is a clear, colorless liquid.

Passage two (question 3-4)

Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman was an American journalist at the turn of the century who wrote for the newspaper New York World under the pen name Nellie Bly, a name which was taken from the Stephen, Foster song Nellie Bly. She achieved fame for her exposes and in particular for the bold and adventuresome way that she obtained her stories.

She felt that the best way to get the real story was from the inside rather than as an outside observer who could be treated to a prettified version of reality. On one occasion she pretended to be a thief so that she would get a nested and see for herself how female prisoners were really treated. On another occasion she faked mental illness in order to be admitted to a mental hospital to get the real picture on the treatment of mental patients.

3. Which of the following is NOT true about Nellie Bly?

(A). Nelly Bly’s real name was Elizabeth Cochrane seaman.

(B). Nellie Bly was mentally ill

(C). The name Nellie Bly came from a song.

(D). The name Nellie Bly was used on articles that Seaman wrote.

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as something that Nellie Bly did to get a good story?

(A). she acted like a thief

(B). she got arrested by the police.

(C). she pretended to be ill.

(D). she worked as a doctor in a mental hospital.
Dalam tes reading seringkali anda diminta untuk menentukan sebuah pronoun mengacu pada noun yang mana?

Cara menjawab pertanyaan ini adalah dengan melihat kalimat /kata-kata sebelum pronoun. Anda akan mendapatkan noun yang dimaksud disana.

Example

The passage

Carnivorous plants, such as the sundew and the Venus Flytrap are generally found in the humid areas where there is an inadequate supply of nitrogen in the soil. In order to survive, these plants have developed mechanisms to trap insects within their foliage. They have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects. These plants trap the insects in a variety of ways. The sundew has sticky hairs on its leaves; when an insect lands on these leaves, it gets caught up in the sticky hairs, and the leaf wraps itself around the insect. The leaves of the Venus-Flytrap function more like a trap, snapping suddenly and forcefully shut around an insect.

The questions :
The pronoun ‘they’ in line 4 refers to …(A) humid areas

(B) these plants

(C) insects

(D) digestive fluids

2. The pronoun ‘it’ in line 6 refers to …

(A) a variety

(B) the sundew

(C) An insect

(D) the leaf


5. INDIRECTLY ANSWERED QUESTIONS

Beberapa pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL akan meminta jawaban yang tidak secara langsung disebutkan dalam teks. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini anda harus menarik kesimpulan dari informasi yang di berikan dalam teks.

Pertanyaan jenis ini meliputi dua : (1) implied detailed questions and (2) transitions questions.

ANSWER IMPLIED DETAILED QUESTIONS CORRECTLY


Example

The passage

The Hawaiian language is a melodious language in which all words are derived from an Alphabet of only twelve letters, the five vowels, A,E,I,O,U and the seven consonants H,K,L,M,N,P,W. Each syllable in the language ends in a vowel, and two consonants never appear together, so vowels have a much higher frequency in the Hawaiian language than they do in English.

This musical sounding language can be heard regularly by visitors to the islands. Most Hawaiians speak English, but it is quite common to hear English that is liberally spiced with words and expressions from the traditional language of the culture. A visitor may be greeted with the expression aloha, and may be referred to as a malihini because he is a new comer to the island. This visitor may attend an outside luau where everyone eats too much and be invited afterwards to dance the hula.

The questions :

1. Which of the following is probably NOT a Hawaiian word?

(A) mahalo

(B) mahimahi

(C) meklea

(D) moana

2. It is implied a luau is …

(A) a dance

(B) a feast

(C) a concert

(D) a language

TOEFL EXERCISE

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)

Eskimos need efficient and adequate means to travel across water in that the areas where they live are surrounded by oceans, bays, and inlets and dotted with lakes and seas. Two different types of boats have been developed by the Eskimo, each constructed to meet specific needs.

The Kayak is something like a canoe that has been covered by deck. A kayak is generally constructed with one opening in the deck for one rider, however, some kayaks are made for two, Because the deck of a kayak is covered over except for the hole (or holes) for its rider (or riders), a kayak can tip over in the water and roll back without filling with water and sinking. One of the primary uses of the kayak is for hunting.

The umiak is not closed over, as is in the kayak, instead it is an open boat that is built to hold ten to twelve passengers. Eskimos have numerous uses for the umiak which reflect the size of the boat; e.g. the umiak is used to haul belongings from campsite to campsite, and it is used for hunting larger animals that are too big to be hunted in a kayak.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that an example of the animal mentioned in lines 12-13 might be …

(A) a kangaroo

(B) a snake

(C) a whale

(D) a salmon

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5)

Two types of trees from the same family of trees share honors in certain respects as the most impressive of trees. Both evergreen conifers, the California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiandendrom gigantteum) are found growing natively only in the state of California. The California redwood is found along the northern coast of the state, while the giant sequoia is found inland and at a higher elevations, along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas.

The California redwood is the tallest living tree and is in fact the tallest living thing on the face of the earth; the height of the tallest redwood on the record is 385 feet (120 meters). Though not quite as tall as the California redwood, with the height of 320 feet ( 100 meters), the giant sequoia is nonetheless the largest and the most massive of living things ; giant sequoias have been measured at more than 100 feet (30 meters) around the base, with weights of more than 6,000 tons.

3. It is implied in the passage that

(A) the leaves of only California redwood turn brown in the autumn

(B) the leaves of only the giant sequoia turn brown in the winter

(C) the leaves of both types of trees in the passage turn brown in the winter

(D) the leaves of neither types of tree in the passage turn brown in the winter

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Siera Nevadas are …

(A) a type of giant redwood

(B) a coastal community

(C) a group of lakes

(D) a mountain range

5. Which of the following is implied in the passage?

(A) The giant sequoia is taller than the California redwood.

(B) The California redwood is not as big around as the giant sequoia.

(C) The California redwood weighs more than the giant sequoia.

(D) Other living things are larger than the giant sequoia.

ANSWER TRANSITION QUESTION CORRECTLY

You will sometimes be asked to determine what a probably came before the reading passage (in the preceding paragraph) or what probably comes after the reading passage (in the following paragraph). Of course, the topic of the preceding or following paragraph is not directly stated, and you must draw a conclusion to determine what a probably in these paragraph.

This type of question. It asks you to demonstrate that you understand that good writing contains transition from one paragraph to the next. A paragraph may start out with the idea of the previous paragraph as a way of linking the ideas in the two paragraphs. A paragraph may also end with an idea that will be further developed in the following paragraph.

Example

The passage:

Another myth of the oceans concerns Davy Jones, who in folklore is the mean-spirited sovereign of the ocean’s depths. The name “Jones” is thought by some etymologists to have been derived from the name “Jonah” the Hebrew prophet who spent three days in a whales belly.

According to tradition, any object that goes overboard and sinks to the bottom of the ocean is said to have gone to Davy Jones’s locker, the ocean sized, mythical receptacle for anything that falls into the water, needless to say, any sailor on the seas is not so eager to take a tour of Davy Jones’s locker, although it might be a rather interesting trip considering all the treasures located there.

The questions:
The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discussesThe youth of Davy JonesDavy Jones career as a sailorA different traditional story from the seaPreparing to travel on the oceanThe topic of the paragraph following the passage most likely is valuable items located of the bottom of the ocean.Where Davy Jones is found todayJonah and the whalePreventing objects from failing overboard

Dalam tes reading akan ada sejumlah soal tentang vocabulary. Jawaban atas soal ini seringkali sudah ada dalam teks itu sendiri. Berikut ini beberapa macam jenis soal vocab.

FIND DEFINITIONS FROM STRUCTURAL CLUES

(Menemukan definisi dari kata kunci yang ada dalam teks 🙂

Ketika anda diminta untuk menemukan kata dalam tes reading kemungkinannya:
Teks memberikan informasi tentang kata ituAda tanda-tanda trtentu yang mengarahkan kita pada kata tersebutExample

The passage ;

One of the leading schools of psychological thought in the

twentieth century is behaviorism – the belief that the role of the

psychologist is to study behavior, which is observable, rather than conscious and unconscious thought, which is not. Probably the best known proponent of behaviorism is B.E Skinner, who is famous for his research on how rewards and punishment influence behavior. He came to believe that positive reinforcements such as praise, food, or money were more effective in promoting good behavior than negative reinforcement or punishment.

The questions
In “behaviorism” In line 2, a psychologist is concerned with(A) unconscious thought patterns

(B) observable actions

(C) unobservable actions

(D) unobservable actions

2. What is “positive reinforcement” in line 7

(A) a gift

(B) A reward

(C) A bribe

(D) A penalty

3. What is “negative reinforcement” in line 9?

(A) A promotion

(B) A reward

(C) A surprise

(D) A punishment

To answer the first question, you should look at the part of the passage following word behaviorism. The dash punctuation (-) gives extra or further information about behaviorism. In the information following the dash you should see that the behaviorist in behavior which is observable, so the best answer to this question is answer (C).

To answer the second question, you should look at the part of the passage following the expression positive reinforcements. The expression such as indicate that examples of positive reinforcement are going to follow. Your job is to look at the examples of positive reinforcement and draw a conclusion about what positive reinforcement might be. Since price, food, or money might be given in return for a job well done, then positive reinforcement must be a reward. The best answer to this question is therefore answer (B).

To answer the third question, you should look at the part of the passage following the expression negative reinforcement. The word or following negative reinforcement tells you that the idea is going to be restated in different words. You can see in the passage that another word for negative reinforcement is punishment, so answer (D) is the best answer to this question.

DETERMINE MEANINGS FROM WORD PARTS

When you are asked to determine the meaning of long words but you do not know THE MEANING in the reading comprehension section of the TOEFL test, it is sometimes possible to determine the meaning of the word by studying the word part.
Example

The Passage

Ring lardner himself was born into a wealthy, educated, and cultured family. For the book of his carrier, he worked as a reporter for newspapers in South Bend, Boston, Santa Louis, and Chicago. However, it is for his short stories of lower middle – clash Americans that ring lardner is perhaps best known. In these stories, Lardner vividly creates the language and the ambiance of this lower class, often using the misspelled words, grammatical errors and incorrect diction that typified the language of the lower middle class.

The questions

1. The word “vividly” in line 6 is closest in meaning to …

(A) in a cultured way

(B) in a correct way

(C) in a lifelike way

(D) in a brief way

2. The word “misspelled” in line 7 is closest in meaning to …

(A) highly improper

(B) vulgar

(C) incorrectly written

(D) slang
The word “diction” in line 8 is closest in meaning to …(A) Writing

(B) Sentence structure

(C) Form

(D) Speech

In the first question, the word vividly contains the word part viv, which means life, so the best answer is answer (C).

In the second question, the word misspelled contains the word part mis, which means error or incorrect, so the best answer is answer (C).

In the third question, the word diction contains the word part dic, which means speak, so that answer is answer (D).

USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS

On the TOEFL test you will sometimes be asked to determine the meanings of a difficult word, a word that you are expected to know. In this case, the passage will give you a clear indication of what the word means.
Example

Line in the passage :

… The barges headed across the lake …

The question :

A “barge” is probably, which of the following?

(A) A train

(B) A plane

(C) A bicycle

(D) A boat

USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF SIMPLE WORDS

You will sometimes be asked to determine the meaning of a simple word, a word that you see often in everyday English. In this type of question, you should not give the normal everyday meaning of the word, instead, the TOEFL test wants you to know the meaning of the word in this situation.
Example

A line from the passage :

He put his answer this way …

The question :

The word “put” is closest meaning to which of the following?

(A) Placed

(B) Set

(C) Expressed

(D) handed

She always helps many people. She, however, is bad with her mother.

Cardamon is not as widely used as a spice in the United States as it is in other parts of the world. This fruit of the ginger plant provides an oil that basically has been used solely as a stimulant in American and English medicines. Other cultures have recognized the multipurpose benefits of this aromatic fruit. In Asia it is used to season sauces such as curry; in Middle Eastern countries it is seeped to prepare a flavorful golden colored tea; in parts of northern Europe it is used as spice in various types of pastry.

1. The word “solely” in line 2 could best be replaced by …

(A) initially

(B) only

(C) reportedly

(D) healthfully

2. The word “multipurpose” in line 3 is closest in meaning to the word “season” in line 4?

(A) Health

(B) Singular

(C) Recognized

(D) varied

3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “season” in line 4?

(A) Divide

(B) Forecast

(C) Spice

(D) Put a time limit

4. “Curry” in line 4 is …

(A) the fruit of ginger plant

(B) A spicy type of sauce

(C) A culture in the area of the Middle East

(D) A type of golden-colored tea

5. The word “seeped” in line 5 is closest in meaning to …

(A) Steamed

(B) Dried

(C) Stored

(D) grown

The life-span of an elephant that dies from natural causes is about sixty-five years. Of course, an elephant can perish from a number of” unnatural causes”; e.g it can be killed by hunters, most probably for the valuable ivory in its tusks; it can die from deases that spread throughout an elephant herd; or it can die from drought or from the lack of food that almost certainly accompanies the inadequate supply of water.

If, however, an elephant survives disasters, it falls prey to old age in its mid-sixties. Around this age, the cause of death is attributed to the loss of the final set of molars. When this last set of teeth is gone, the elephant dies from malnutrition because it is unable to obtain unadequate nourishment. In old age, elephant tend to search out a final home where there is shade for comfort from the sun and soft vegetation for cushioning; the bones of many old elephants have been found in such places.
The word “perish in line 2 means …(A) fall ill

(B) shoot

(C) die

(D) get rich
The word “unnatural” in line 2 is closest meaning to …(A) wild

(B) violent

(C) domesticated

(D) abnormal
The word “drought” in line 4 means …(A) a drowning

(B) a lack of food

(C) an inadequate supply of water

(D) an overabundance of animals
Which of the following could be used to replace the word “survives” in line 6?(A) Rises to

(B) Succumbs to

(C) Denies

(D) Lives through
“Molars” in line 7 are…(A) germs

(B) old-age characteristics

(C) types of food

(D) teeth
In line 8, “malnutrition” is used to describe someone who …(A) is in good health

(B) has an illness

(C) suffers from poor eating

(D) experiences dental problems
The expression “a final home” in line 9 is closest in meaning to …(A) a place to die

(B) a comfortable house

(C) a place for sale

(D) the only remaining place to live
The word “shade” in line 9 is closest in meaning to …(A) color

(B) heat

(C) diminished light

(D) a front porch

GRAMMAR/STRUCTURE


NORMAL SENTENCE PATERN

IN ENGLISH


Subject Verb Complement Modifier

(predicate) (object) (adverb)

John and I ate a pizza last night

We studied “present perfect” last week.

Learn the following sentences and their sentence patterns!





The man makes handicrafts in a village.Linking verb : am, is, are

Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.

Verb modifier complement

Correct : She drove the car on the street.

Verb complement modifier

“Urutannya subject + Verb + complement + modifier”, tidak bisa dibalik antara complement dengan modifier”

. Identify the subject, verb, and modifier
George is cooking dinner.Henry and Marcia have visited the president.We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.Pat should have visited the president.We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.Trees growIt was raining at seven o’clock this morning.Jill is buying a new hat in the store.Harry is washing dishes right now.She opened her book.Definisi : Noun phrase adalah (frase) sekumpulan kata yang belum membentuk subjek dan predikat dan sekumpulan kata itu berakhir dengan noun (kata benda), dimana noun tersebut merupakan inti dari frase itu.Susunan Noun Phrase : Terdiri atas sebuah noun terletak di akhir, didahului dengan determiner (a, the, that, this, many, much, dsb), dan sering juga ditambah adjective , adverbs di antara determiner dan noun tersebut.Contoh Noun Phrase :

– An elephant

– The ladies

– The old man

– That extremely strange woman

– Many birds

– Much money

“ Yang sering diteskan dalam Tes TOEFL adalah” :

A. Penggunaan Determiner

Dalam tes Toefl sering kita diminta untuk menentukan determiner apa yang tepat digunakan dalam sebuah noun phrase, apakah a, the, that, many, much atau yang lain. Untuk menentukan determiner yang tepat kita harus mengetahui apakah noun nya termasuk countable noun atau uncountable noun.

Contoh : a few books (menggunakan determiner a few karena books termasuk countable noun). A little money (menggunakan a little karena money termasuk uncountable noun).

Berikut ini aturannya :
Determiner yang diikuti countable noun (kata benda dapat dihitung)Determiner yang diikuti uncountable noun (kata benda tidak dapat dihitung)d1. Many

d2. A lot of

d3. A large number of

A great number of

d4. (a) few

d5. Fewer … than

d6. More… than

d1. much

d2. a lot of

d3. a large amount of

d4. (a) little

d5. less … than

d6. more … than

Sehingga tentukanlah apakah noun nya countable atau uncountable kemudian tentukan determiner yang tepat seuai aturan di atas!

Adapun untuk menentukan apakah sebuah noun countable atau uncountable cara umumnya adalah sebagai berikut.

Taruhlah kata one sebelum noun, apabila dapat berarti countable, apabila tidak dapat berarti uncountable.

Contoh : Kita dapat mengatakan “one book”, berarti book adalah countable noun. Tetapi kita tidak dapat mengatakan “ one money”, berarti money adalah uncountable noun.

Penting!!!

Perhatikan dan pelajarilah daftar “Uncountable nouns” berikut ini!
Sand : pasirMeasles : penyakit campakNews : beritaFood : makananSoap : sabunMumps : penyakit gondokInformation : informasiEconomics : Ilmu ekonomiPhysics : ilmu fisikaAir : udaraMeat : dagingAdvertising : periklanan(untuk kata advertisement termasuk countable noun)

Perbedaan : Adveritsing berarti periklanan tapi secara umum, Advertisement berarti periklanan tapi secara spesifik.
Mathematics : ilmu matematikaPolitics : politik, ilmu politikHomework : pekerjaan rumah (PR)Money : uangWater : airSugar : gulaGeography : ilmu geografiAtmosphere : suasana, lapisan udaraSoup : sopHydrogen : Hidrogen

Tambahan* Umumnya untuk menjadikan suatu kata benda tunggal menjadi jamak adalah dengan penambahan “s” atau “es”. Contoh , chair menjadi chairs… pen menjadi pens, dst. Akan tetapi ada beberapa kata benda yang tidak sesuai aturan dalam perubahannya dari tunggal menjadi jamak. Berikut daftarnya ;
*Catatan*, Bebebrapa uncountable nouns seperti food, money, dan sand kadang juga digunakan sebagai countable nouns yaitu ketika mengindikasikan jenis-jenis dari benda-benda itu yang berbeda-beda.

Contoh :
This is one of the foods that my doctor has forbidden me to eat.(mengindikasikan satu tipe makanan tertentu)
(misalnya, beef / daging babi, pork / daging babi, lamb / daging domba, dsb.)

Exercise : Determiners

Choose the correct determiners in the following sentences!
He doesn’t have (many/much) money.I would like (a few/a little) salt on my vegetables.She bought (that/those) cards last night.There are (less/fewer) students in this room than in the next room.There is (too much/too many) bad news on television tonight.I do not want (these/this) water.This is (too many/too much) information to learn.A (few/little) people left early.Would you like (less/fewer) coffee than this?This jacket costs (too much/too many).“Perbedaan penggunaan a dan an”

A dan an keduanya sama-sama selalu terletak sebelum sebuah singular countable noun. Keduanya dapaat digunakan dalam general statement (pernyataan umum) atau digunakan untuk mengawali sebuah kata benda yang belum disebutkan sebelumnya.

Contoh :

A baseball is round. (general- means all baseball)

I saw a boy in the street. (We don’t know which boy.)

Perbedaannya an digunakan sebelum kata yang berawal dengan bunyi vokal. A digunakan sebelum kata yang berwal dengan bunyi konsonan.

Contoh :

A book an apple

Beberapa kata kadang membingungkan karena tulisannya berbeda dengan pengucapannya.

Contoh :

A house ( mulai dengan suara konsonan)

An hour ( mulai dengan suara vokal)

A university ( mulai dengan suara konsonan)

An umbrella (mulai dengan suara vokal)

Beberapa kata berikut mulai dengan suara konsonan, sehingga harus selalu diikuti

dengan a.
House : rumah Uniform : seragam Home : rumah University : universitas Heavy : berat Universal : mendunia Half : setengah Union : kesatuan Beberapa kata berikut mulai dengan suara vocal, sehingga harus selalu diikuti dengan an. Uncle : paman Umbrella : paying Hour : jam Heir : warisan

Penggunaan The

The digunakan sebagai determiner untuk benda yang sudah sibutkan sebelumnya, atau yang sudah sama-sama dipahami oleh pembicara dan lawan bicara, atau memang sudah menjadi pengetahuan umum.
The boy in the corner is my friend. (Pembicara dan pendengar mengetahui anak lelaki yang mana yang adimaksud)The earth is round. (Sudah menjadi pengetahuan umum bumi mana yang dimaksud, karena memang yang namanya bumi itu ya hanya satu)

The digunakan sebagai determiner Uncountable noun jika pembicaraannya mengacu pada hal yang spesifik, tapi jika uncountable noun yang digunakan bersifat general maka the tidak digunakan.
Sugar is sweet. ( general – semua gula)The sugar on the table is from Cuba. (spesifik- gula yang dimaksud adalah gula yang diatas meja)

The tidak digunakan sebagai determiner countable noun yang bersifat general.
Oranges are green until they ripen. (semua jeruk)Athletes should follow a well-balanced diet. (semua atlit)The tidak digunakan sebagai determiner proper noun kecuali ada beberapa orang atau benda yang memiliki nama sama dan pembicara mengacu spesifik pada salah satunya.
There are three Susan Parkers in the telephone directory.The Susan Parker that I know lives on First Avenue. (mengacu pada Susan Parker yang tinggal di First Avenue)The bisanya tidak digunakan sebagai determiner untuk kata-kata seperti breakfast, dinner, school, church, home,dan college kecuali untuk membatasi makna (spesifik).
We ate breakfast this morning.We went to school yesterday.I am looking for the college we passed by yesterday. (spesifik pada kampus yang kita lewati kemarin)Secara umum berikut ini aturan penggunaan the. Penting, pelajari!!!
Oceans, rivers, seas, gulfs, plural lakes

The Red Sea, The Atlantic Ocean

Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, The Andes

Earth, moon

The earth, the moon

Schools, colleges, universities when the phrase begins with school, etc

The University of Florida, the College of arts and Sciences

ordinal numbers before nouns

the First World War, the third chapter

wars (except world wars)

the Crimean War, the Korean War

countries with more than one word (except Great Britain)

the United States

historical documents

the Constitution, the Magna Carta

Ethnic groups

the Indians, the Javanese

singular lakes

Lake Geneva, Lake Erie

Mounts

Mount Merapi, Mount Merbabu

Planets, constellations

Venus, Mars

Schools, colleges, universities when the phrase begins with proper noun

Santa Fe Community College, Stetson University

cardinal numbers after nouns

World War One, chapter three

countries with one word

China, Venezuela, France

continents

Europe, Africa, South America

states

Florida, Ohio, California

sports

baseball, basketball

abstract nouns

freedom, happiness

general areas of subject matter

mathematics, sociology

holidays

Idul Fitri, Christmas

1. Jason’s father bought him …..bicycle that he had waited for his birthday.

2. … Statue of liberty was a gift of friendship from …. France to …… United States.

3. Rita is studying…… English and ….. math this semester.

4. Please give me ….cup of ……coffee with …cream and … sugar.

5. … big books on ….table are for my history class.

6. … Lake Erie is one of…five great lakes in … North America.

7. When you go to … store , please buy … bottle of … chocolate milk and … dozen oranges.

8. John and Marcy went to … school yesterday and studied in … library before returning home.

9. …. chair that you are sitting in is broken.

10. Florida State University is smaller than … University of Florida.

Perbedaan penggunaan other, the other, dan another

Another

Sebagai determiner untuk singular countable noun. Digunakan sebagai determiner mengacu pada hal yang tidak spesifik (belum jelas yang mana yang dimaksud).

Contoh :
I don’t want this book. Please give me another book. (belum jelas another / yang lain itu yang mana, pokoknya yang lain)Sering noun nya dihilangkan sehingga tinggal another nya saja. Sehingga another berfungsi sebagai pronoun.

I don’t want this book. Please give me another.

Other

Sebagai determiner untuk plural countable nouns atau uncountable nouns. Digunakan sebagai determiner mengacu pada hal yang tidak spesifik (belum jelas yang mana yang dimaksud).
I don’t want these books. Please give me other books. (belum jelas other / yang lain itu yang mana, pokoknya yang lain)Sering noun nya dihilangkan sehingga tinggal other nya saja. Sehingga other berfungsi sebagai pronoun.

I don’t want these book. Please give me others.

(others = other books)
This chemical is poisonous. Others are poisonous too.(others = other chemicals = tapi belum jelas bahan kimia yang lain yang mana yang dimaksud)
I don’t like this sugar. I want other sugar. OR I don’t like this sugar. I want other.(belum jelas other sugar / gula lain yang mana yang dimaksud)

The other

Sebagai determiner untuk singular noun & plural countable nouns atau uncountable nouns. Digunakan sebagai determiner mengacu pada hal yang sudah spesifik (sudah jelas yang mana yang dimaksud, biasanya mengacu pada benda-benda lain yang masih tersisa.).

Sering noun nya dihilangkan sehingga tinggal the other nya saja. Sehingga the other berfungsi sebagai pronoun.

Contoh :
I don’t want these books. Please give me the other books. OR Please give me the others.(The other books / the others = buku-buku lain yang masih tersisa, jadi sudah jelas)
I am still confused with this dictionary. Please lend me the other dictionary. OR Please give me the other. (The other dictionary / the other = satu kamus lain yang masih tersisa, sudah jelas)
This water is for them. Lease give me the other water. OR Please give me the other.(The other water / the other = air lain yang masih tersisa)

Tambahan* Sering sebuah kata benda, untuk menghindari perulangan, diganti dengan kata one / ones.

Contoh.
I don’t want this book. Please give me another oneI don’t want this book. Please give me the other.This chemical is poisonous. Other ones are poisonous too.I don’t want these books. Please give me the other ones.Exerxcise

Fill in the blank with the appropriate form of other.
This pen isn’t working. Please give me ………….(singular)If you’re still thirsty, I’ll make …. Pot of coffee.This dictionary has a page missing. Please give me …(the last one)He does not need those books. He needs … (all the remaining)There are thirty people in the room. Twenty are from Latin America and … are from …countries.Six people were in the store. Two were buying meat. …was looking at magazines. …was eating a candy bar. …were walking around looking for more food. (notice the verbs)This glass of milk is sour. …glass of milk is sour too.The army was practicing its drills. One group was doing artillery practice. …was marching ; …was at attention ; and …was practicing combat tactics.There are seven students from Japan. …are from Iran, and …are from …places.We looked at four cars today. The first two were far too expensive, but …once were reasonably priced.Perhatikan* Dimungkinkan kita menggunakan demonstrative articles this, that, these, dan those sebagai pronouns. Adalah benar kita mengatakan this one dan that one; akan tetapi, adalah salah jika kita mengatakan these ones atau those ones. Gunakan saja these atau those sebagai pronouns tanpa penambahan ones.

Contoh :
The elevator is broken. That one is also broken. (that one = that elevator)These glasses are dirty. Those are dirty also. (those = those glasses)

Materi tenses merupakan materi dasar bahasa Inggris yang harus dikuasai dengan baik oleh setiap pembelajar bahasa Inggris. Materi ini sebenarnya tergolong mudah manakala seorang pembelajar memahami dengan baik dasar-dasar nya. Materi ini juga merupakan materi yang sering di ujikan dalam tes TOEFL.

Materi tenses di sini meliputi :
Simple present tensePresent progressiveSimple past tensePast progressivePresent perfectPresent perfect progressivePast perfect

Simple Present Tense

Tense ini digunakan untuk menyatakan kalimat yang terjadi di waktu sekarang, kebiasaan, atau kebiasaan.

Rumusnya
S + VERB1(s/es)

Contoh :
I need you.He smiles at me.They drink coffee every morning.DAN
S + am / is / are + K.Sifat / K.Keterangan / K. Benda

Contoh :
I am hungry.She is at home.We are farmers.Present Progressive

Digunakan untuk menyatakan kejadian yang benar-benar sedang terjadi di waktu sekarang.

Rumusnya
S + am / is / are + Verb ing

Contoh :
I am waiting for her.He is working.They are playing games.Perhatikan* Beberapa kata kerja berikut tidak pernah dapat digunakan sebagai verb dalam kalimat present progressive :

Know : mengetahuiUnderstand : memahamiHave : mempunyaiBelieve : mempercayaiHate : membenciNeed : membutuhkanHear : mendengarLove : mencintaiAppear : nampakSee : melihatLike : sukaSeem : KelihatanSmell : berbauWant : inginTaste : terasaWish : berharapSound : bersuaraOwn : memilikiJadi kita tidak dapat mengatakan “I am having a new house.” He is believing me”. Dst. Yang benar “ I have a new house.” He believes me”

Namun kadang kala kata-kata diatas ditemui dalam bentuk ing,tapi itu dalam penggunann lain, atau bermakna lain.

Contoh :
Owning a car now will help us to travel everyday.“own” ditambah ing karena own sebagai subjek sehingga harus dibendakan yaitu dengan menambah ing.

Sering kali present progressive juga digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang benar-benar sudah direncanakan untuk dilakukan!!!

Contoh :
George is leaving for France tomorrow.Henry is walking to school tomorrow.We are flying to Venezuela next month.Exercise : simple present vs present progressive

Choose either the simple present or present progressive in the following sentences.
Something … (smell) very good.We …(eat) dinner at seven o’clock tonight.He … (practice) the piano every day.They … (drive) to school tomorrow.I …(believe) you.Maria ….(have) a cold.Jorge …(swim) right now.John … (hate) smoke.Jill always … (get) up at 6: 00 AM.Jerry … (mow) the lawn now.Simple Past Tense

Digunakan untuk mnyatakan kejadian yang terjadi pada one specific time di waktu lampau.

Rumusnya
S + Verb2

Contoh :
John went to Spain last year.Mark washed the dishes after the dinner.We drove to the grocery store last night.DAN
S + was / were + K.sifat / k. keterangan / k. benda

Contoh :
I was tired yesterday.They were angry this morning.She was here last night.Past Progressive

Rumus umum nya


S + was / were / + Verb ing

Contoh :
I was waiting for her.He was working.They were playing games.Digunakan untuk :

(1) Sebuah perbuatan yang sedang terjadi di suatu ketika pada waktu lampau, kemudian disusul dengan kejadian lain. Rumusnya
When + subject1 + simple past tense + subject 2 + past progressiveOR
Subject 1 + past progressive + when + subject 2 + simple past tense ..(2) Dua kejadian/perbuatan di waktu yang sama di waktu lampau. Rumusnya :
While + subject1 + simple past tense + subject 2 + past progressiveOR
Subject 1 + past progressive + while + subject 2 + past progressiveContoh :

Martha was watching television while John was reading a book.

OR

While John was reading a book, Martha was watching television.

(3) Sebuah kejadian/perbuatan di suatu waktu tertentu di waktu lampau

Rumusnya


Contoh :

Martha was watching television at seven o’clock last night.

What were you doing at one o’clock this afternoon?

Exercise : Simple past vs Past progressive

Use either the simple past or the past progressive in the following sentences as appropriate.
Gene …. (eat) dinner when his friend called.While Maria was cleaning the apartment, her husband …(sleep).At three o’clock this morning, Eleanor …(study).When Mark arrived, The Johnsons …(have) dinner, but they stopped in order to talk to him.John …(go) to France last year.When the teacher …(enter) the room, the students were talking.While Joan was writing the report, Henry …(look) for more information.We …(see) this movie last night.At one time, Mr. Roberts …(own) this building.Jose … (write) a letter to his family when his pencil … (break).Present perfect

(

Rumusnya
Digunakan untuk :

(1) Sebuah perbuatan yang terjadi di suatu waktu di waktu lampau, tapi kapan waktunya tidak dipermasalahkan / tidak diketahui secara jelas (fokusnya bukan pada kapan waktu lampau itu tapi pada perbuatan dan akibatnya). Dalam bahasa Indonesia artinya “telah”.
John has traveled around the world. (kita tidak tahu kapan waktunya)John telah mengadakan perjalanan mengelililngi dunia.

(2) Sebuah perbuatan yang terjadi lebih dari sekali di waktu lampau. (‘telah”)
George has seen this movie three times.George telah menonton film ini tiga kali.

(3) Sebuah perbuatan di waktu lampau dan wasih terjadi sekarang. (“telah”)
John has lived in the same house for twenty years.John has lived in the same house since 1982.For* Penggunaan for + lama waktu ; for five years, for three weeks ,etc.

Since*Penggunaan since + mulai waktu kejadian ; since 1880. since January, etc.

Tambahan* Untuk present perfect tidak dibenarkan menggunakan keterangan waktu lampau, seperti last week, last night, yesterday etc. Kalau mau diberi keterangan waktu, keterangan waktunta berupa present ; now, today, at this time, etc.

Contoh :
He has bought a dictionary yesterday. (SALAH)Ha has bought a dictionary now. (BENAR)Present perfect progressive (continuous)

Rumusnya
Penggunaaan tense ini sama dengan tense present perfect tipe tiga.

John has lived in the same house for twenty years. = John has been living in the same house for twenty years.John has worked in Washington for one year. = John has been working in Washington for one year.Exercise ; Present perfect Vs Simple Past John………(write) his report last night.Bob……….(see) this movie before.Jorge………(read) the newspaper already.Mr. Johnson ……(work) in the same place for thirty-five years, and he is not planning to retire yet.We …….(begin;negative) to study for the test yet.George …..(go) to the store at ten o’clock this morning.Joan ……. (travel) around the world.Betty …….(write) a letter last night.Guillermo …….(call) his employer yesterday.We ………(see;negative) this movie yet.

Past Perfect

Rumusnya
Digunakan untuk :

(1) Sebuah kejadian/ perbuatan yang terjadi sebelum perbuatan/kejadian di waktu lampau ; biasanya ada dua kejadian/perbuatan dalam kalimat.

John had gone to the store before he went home.

Joh told us yesterday that he had visited England in 1970.

Biasanya past perfect menggunakan adverbs before, aftern when.

Pelajari formula-formula berikut ini!!!
S + Past perfect + before + subject + simple past tenseJohn had had gone to the store + before he went home.
S + simple past tense + after + subject + past perfectJohn went home after he had gone to the store.


Before + subject + simple past tense + subject + past perfectBefore John went home, he had gone to the store.
After + subject + past perfect + subject + simple past tenseAfter John had gone to the store, he went home.

Perhatikan* When dapat digunakan mengganti before / after pada semua rumus di atas.

Contoh :
John had gone to the store when he went home.

(2) Keadaan yang berlanjut selama kurun waktu di waktu lampau, tapi berhenti di sebuah waktu sebelum sekarang. Ini serupa dengan penggunaan present perfect tipe tiga, tapi bedanya untuk past perfect ini semua kejadian di waktu lampau, tidak ada kaitannya dengan waktu sekarang.
Abdu had lived in New York for ten years before he moved to California.Past Perfect progressive


Penggunaannnya sama dengan fungsi past perfect tipe 2.
Abdu had been living in New York for ten years before he moved to California.Exercise : Past perfect and Simple Past
The policeman read the suspect his rights after he ….(arrest) him.After John …….(wash) his clothes, he began to study.George ……..(wait) for one hour before the bus came.Maria ……(enter) the university after she had graduated from the community college.Jeanette …….(wash) the pipettes after she had completed the experiment.Jane sent a letter to her university after she … (receive) her scholarship check.After the stewardess had served lunch to the passengers, they …(sit) down.The car … (flip) ten times before it landed on its roof.We corrected our papers after we … (take) the quiz.John … (live) in Miami for one year when his parents came to visit.Materi ini merupakan materi berikutnya yang sering diujikan dalam Tes TOEFL. Materi ini mempermasalahkan kesesuaian antara subjek dengan predikat. Perlu kita ketahui bahwa dalam Bahassa Inggris predikat akan berubah-ubah bentuknya seiring perubahan subjek, perubahan keterangan waktu,dsb.

Sehingga disini pembahasan akan terkait dengan “kapan digunakan tobe am / is / are, kapan verb ditambah s / es, dan seterusnya.

Untuk memudahkan kita memahami materi ini, kita mulai dari bebereapa pasang kalimat berikut. Pilihlah mana kalimat yang benar, mana kalimat yang salah????
I am sad todayI is sad today.They are playing badminton.They is playing badminton.The lady are in my office.The lady is in my office.The teachers are smart.The teachers is smart.Kemudian lanjutkan dengan memahami kalimat-kalimat berikut. Temukan mana yang benar, mana yang salah!
I need more money.I needs more money.He meet the headmaster.He meets the headmaster.Siska smile at us.Siska smiles at us.Siska and her mother live in a village.Siska and her mother lives in a village.The boy have much money.The boy has much money.Pelajarilah rumusnya berikut ini!
Singular third noun

(orang ketiga tunggal)

For examples : boy lady, teacher, farmer, etc.


The boy is chasing a cat.The teacher is explaining the lesson.Plural third noun

(orang ketiga jamak)

For example : boys, ladies, teachers, singers, etc.


The boys are chasing a cat.The teachers are discussing some materials.Plural verb

(Kata kerja tidak ditambah s/es)


I wear glasses.You bring an umbrella.They teach clearly.We have some buffaloes.Singular verb

(Kata kerja ditambah s/es)


He watches football.She brings an umbrella.It needs water.Singular third noun

(orang ketiga tunggal)

For examples : boy lady, teacher, farmer, etc.

Singular verb

(Kata kerja ditambah s/es)


The boy wears glasses.The lady brings an umbrella.The teacher teaches clearly.The farmer has a large field.Plural third noun

(orang ketiga jamak)

For example : boys, ladies, teachers, singers, etc.

Plural verb

(Kata kerja tidak ditambah s/es)


The boys wear glasses.The ladies bring an umbrella.The teachers teach clearly.The farmers have some buffaloes.Beberapa aturan di atas merupakan dasar dari materi Subject-Verb Agreement ini (persesuaian antara subjek dengan predikat dalam sebuah kalimat)

Berikut ini merupakan materi lanjutan yang harus dipahami karena sangat sering diujikan dalam tes TOEFL.

A. Frasa Preposisi Tidak Mempengaruhi Subjek

Sebuah kalimat di bangun minimal atas sebuah subjek dan sebuah predikat, kemudian sering ditambah dengan objek, dan keterangan.

Misalnya :

– The man lives in a village.

The man = subjek

Lives = predikat (verb)

In a village = keterangan

– The students bring mobile phones everyday.

The students = subjek

Bring = predikat

Mobile phones = objek

Everyday = keterangan

Kalimat pertama dapat dipercantik/diperluas menjadi :

The man among those ladies lives in the village.

S p

Kita perhatikan kalimat diatas , apa yang berubah? Yaitu subjeknya…. Pada dasarnya tidak beruah, tapi hanya dispesifikkan dengan penambahan frasa preposisi (among those ladies). Tapi ingat intinya tetap the man… sehingga predikatnya tetap lives. Sehingga “s” tetap ditambahkan pada predikat itu karena subjeknya the man , yang merupakan orang ketiga tunggal.

Jadi Frase preposisi (among those ladies) tidak mempengaruhi subjeknya (tetap orang ketiga tunggal), sehingga predikatnya sama yaitu ditambah “s”.

Begitu juga dengan kalimat-kalimat lain “Frasa preposisi tidak memengaruhi subjek dan persesuaiannya dengan predikat”. Jadi “JANGAN TERKECOH!!!!

Pelajari contoh-contoh kalimat yang semua subjeknya memiliki frasa preopsisi berikut!
The boys in the room are studying.The study of languages is very interesting.The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.The danger of forest fires….(is/are) not to be taken lightly.The fear of rape and robbery ……(has/have) caused many people to flee the cities.The singer, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.The singer, together with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.The singers, along with her manager and some friends, …. going to a party tonight.Mr, Robins, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight.The students, accompanied by some teachers, ….(is/are) visiting a museum.Learning English, as well as learning other foreign languages, needs practice.B. Penggunaaan “none of”“None of” selalu diikuti plural nouns / kata benda jamak. Penggunaan “none of” pada sebuah subjek memiliki aturan sebagai berikut :
none of + the + plural nouns (countable) + plural verb (tidak ditambah s/es)none of + the + plural nouns (countable) + “are” + adjective, adverb, noun , etc.……

2. none of + the + uncountable noun + singular verb (ditambah s/es)

none of + the + uncountable noun + “is” + adjective, adverb, noun,.. etc

Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut!
None of the students bring any money.None of the students are ready to sit for the test.None of the water is clean.None of the water flows.C. Penggunaan “No”No + singular noun (countable) + singular verb (memakai s / es)No + singular noun (countable) + “is” + adjective/adverb/noun …etc.No + plural noun (countable) + plural verb (tidak memakai s / es)No + plural noun (countable) + “are” + adjective/adverb/noun …etc.No + uncountable noun + singular verb (memakai s / es)No kid is playing.No kids are playing.No kid cries in the night here.No kids cry in the night here.No water is dirty here.No money is given today.D. Penggunaan Either dan NeitherEither dan neither selalu rumusnya :

Either ……or ……

Neither ….nor….

Penentuan apakah to be nya is atau are ditentukan dengan melihat noun setelah …or atau ..nor.

Apabila noun setelah or / nor singular maka verb nya juga singular (ditambah s/es), dan kalau pakai to be maka to be nya is.

Apabila noun setelah or / nor plural, maka verb nya juga plural (tidak memakai s/es), dan klau pakai to be maka to be nya are.

Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut!
Either John or his friends are going to the beach today.Either John or his father is going to the beach today.Neither George nor Jane is doing the task now.Neither George nor his friends are doing task now.E. Penggunaan Verb-ing (Gerund) sebagai subjekSubjek berupa verb-ing selalu diikuti singular verb atau kalau pakai to be berarti to be nya adalah is.
Smoking is my hobby.Dieting is very popular today.Writing many letters make/makes her happy.F. Penggunaan “A number of” dan “The number of”


A number of + plural noun + plural verb (tidak memakai s/es)

OR

A number of + plural noun + are + adjective, adverb, noun, …etc


A number of students are sick today.A number of applicants come from Bandung.The number of students coming today is few.The number of applicants in this year is very small.G. Penggunaan “there”


There is / was /has been + singular subject (or uncountable noun)Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut!
There is a book on the table.There was a book on the table.There has been a book on the tableThere are / were / have been + plural subject Perhatikan contoh-contoh berikut!
There are some books on the table.There were some books on the table.There have been some books on the table.There will be + plural noun / singular noun / uncountable nouPerhatikan contoh-contoh berikut!
There will be three teachers.There will be a teacher.There will be much water.H. Penggunaan collective nouns

Ada sejumlah kata yang nampaknya plural / jamak tapi sebenarnya singular / tunggal (umumnya), sehingga predikatnya to be nya is atau kalau menggunakan verb maka verb nya ditambah s/es Berikut kata-kata tersebut :

Congress : KongresOrganization : organisasiGovernment : pemerintahFamily : keluargaTeam : timJury : YuriGroup : kelompokArmy : tentara, lasykarMajority* : mayoritasCommittee : panitiaClub : klubMinority : minoritasClass : kelasCrowd : kerumunanPublic : khalayak umumMajority* dapat berfunsi singular dapat juga berfungsi plural. Jika majority berdiri sendiri majority biasanya adalah singular, tapi jika majority diikuti plural noun, maka majority biasanya adalah plural.

The majority believes that weare in no danger.

The majority of the students believe him to be innocent.

Perhatikan contoh contoh berikut!
Our team is going to win.The committee has met, and it has rejected the proposal.The family needs aid.The crowd was wild with excitement.The organization has lost many members this year.I. Penggunaan collective nouns mengindikasikan waktu, uang, dan ukuran yang

digunakan sebagai sebuah kesatuan

Penggunaan collective noun jenis ini dianggap singular, sehingga predikatnya to be nya is atau kalau menggunakan verb maka verb nya ditambah s/es
Twenty-five dollars is too much to pay for that shirt.Fifty minutes isn’t enough time to finish this test.Two miles is two much to run in one day.Twenty dollars has made me satisfied.

J. Penggunaan nouns mengindikasikan kelompok hewan-hewan tertentu

Nouns jenis ini dianggap singular / tunggal , sehingga predikatnya to be nya is atau kalau menggunakan verb maka verb nya ditambah s/es

Berikut ini daftar nouns nya :

Flock of birds : kawanan burungHerd of cattle : kawanan ternakPack of dogs : sekumpulan anjingSchool of fish : kawanan ikanPride of lions : kawanan singaPerhatikan contoh-contoh berikut!
The flock of birds is circling overhead.The herd of cattle is breaking away.A school of fish is being attacked by sharks.Tambahan* Berikut ini merupakan daftar nouns yang selalu dianggap plurals /jamak, sehingga predikatnya to be nya is atau kalau menggunakan verb maka verb nya ditambah s/es.

Apabila kita ingin mengatakannya dalam bentuk tunggal kita harus menggunakan kata

“a pair of…” (sepasang…)

Berikut daftar kata-kata nya :

Scissors : guntingTrousers : celana panjangShorts : celana pendekGlasses : kaca mataPants : celana panjangPliers : tang, catut, penjepitJeans : celana jeanTweezers : penjepit / jepitanTongs : jepitan, tangPerhatikan contoh-contoh berikut !

The pants are in the drawer.

A pair of pants is in the drawer.

The pliers were on the table.

The pair of pliers was on the table.

These scissors are dull.

This pair of scissors is dull.

Tambahan* Biasanya para pembelajar Bahasa Inggris agak rancu terhadap beberapa kata berikut ; mereka sering menganggap kata-kata ini diikuti oleh plural nouns dan plural verbs padahal sebenarnya kata-kata ini adalah diikuti oleh singular nouns dan singular verbs.
1. Any + singular noun

– anybody

– anyone

– anything

2.

– nobody

– no one

– nothing

3. some + singular noun *

– somebody

– someone

– something

4. every + singular noun

– everybody

– everyone

– everything

5.

– each

– either **

– neither **

.

*some + singular noun = artinya suatu / se

Misalnya : somebody = seorang, some place = suatu tempat

“Tapi sering juga some + plural noun seperti misalnya “ some places …tapi artinya berbeda, yaitu “beberapa tempat”.

Jadi jika some diikuti singular noun artinys suatu / se, sedangkan jika some diikuti plural noun artinya menjadi beberapa.

** either dan neither adalah singular jika digunakan tanpa or dan nor. Misalnya

“ Neither of you is allowed to enter that room now.”

Selanjutnya pelajari contoh-contoh berikut!
Everybody who has not purchased a ticket should be in this line.Something was under the house.If either of you takes a vacation now, we will not be able to finish the work.Anybody who has lost his ticket should report to the desk.No problem is harder to solve than this one.Nobody works harder than John does.

Choose the correct form
Neither Bill nor Mary (is/are) going to play tonight.Anything (is/are) better than going to another movie.Skating (is/are) becoming more popular every day.A number of reporters (was/were) at the conference yesterday.Everybody who (has/have) a fever must go home immediately.The committee (has/have) already reached a decision.There (have/has) been too many interruptions in this class.Every elementary school teacher (has/have) to take this examination.A pack of wild dogs (have/has) frightened all the ducks away.Either John or his wife (make/makes) breakfast each morning.
Dalam Tes TOEFL materi pronoun termasuk soal yang mudah untuk dikerjakan, yaitu manakala kita cermat / waspada terhadap pronouns yang dimunculkan dalam tes, dan tentu apabila kita mau mempelajarinya terlebih dahulu.

Pronoun dalam bahasa Inggris berubah-ubah bentuknya, sesuai dengan kedudukannya, sebagai subjek, predikat, dsb.

A. Subject pronouns Vs Object pronouns
I like him.He likes me.They like us.We like them.And so on…..Aku dalam bahasa inggris, ketika sebagai subjek adalah “I”, Tapi ketika aku berfungsi sebagai objek berubah menjadi me.. Kemudian dia (laki-laki) ketika sebagai subjek = “he”, tapi ketika menjadi objek berubah menjadi “him”.

Begitulah pronouns dalam bahasa inggris, berubah-ubah sesuai dengan kedudukan/fungsinya…dst.

Rumusnya
Object pronouns

(Complement pronouns)

B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives

I have a car.My car is new.He has a house.His house is oldAnd so on….Aku dalam bahasa Inggris ketika sebagai subjek = “I”, ketika sebagai objek = “me”.. Selanjutnya ketika aku berfungsi menyatakan kepunyaan berubah menjadi “my”, kemudian you menjadi your, dst.

Rumusnya
C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns
My hat is red and your hat is blue.My hat is red and yours is blue.Your hat is blue and mine is red.Ketika kita mau mengatakan topiku bahasa Inggrisnya = my hat. Lantas apa bahasa inggrisnya milikku? Yaitu mine.. milik mereka = theirs, mikik kami ours, dst.

Rumusnya
D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns

He cooked for me yesterday.He cooked for himself last night.Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.Joan bought herself a new hat.Rumus ini digunakan ketika sebuah subjek melakukan perbuatan yang terarah pada dirinya sendiri. Misalnya, “Aku membeli makanan untuk diriku”, maka bahsa inggrisnya I buy food for myself. “Dia menyakiti dirinya = He hurts himself. Jadi ada penambahan self/selves pada pronounya.

Rumusnya

Do the following exercises!

I go to school with (he/him) yesterday.I see (she/her/herself) at the union everyday.She speaks to (we/us/ourselves) every morning.(He/Him) is going to New York on vacation.(She/her) and John gave the money to the boy.I hurt (my/mine/the) leg.John bought (he/him/ hisself /himself) a new hat.(Your/yours) record is scratched and (my/mine) is too.(We/us) girls are going camping over the weekend.We like (our/ours) new car very much.Marry and (I/me) would rather go to the movies.Monday is a holiday for (we/us) teahers.Verbs as Complements, artinya kata-kata kerja sebagai pelengkap. Maksudnya sering kali kata kerja itu berfungsi sebagai pelengkap, yaitu pelengkap dari kata-kata kerja lain. Contoh :
He agrees to meet.He enjoys sitting there.Kata meet adalah sebagai pelengkap kata agrees, tapi coba perhatikan meet ditulis dengan to meet. Bukan meet saja atau ditambah ing meeting.

Sedangkan kata enjoys diikuti verb ing sitting, bukan sit saja, atau to sit.

Jadi materi ini mengajarkan bahwa ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti “to verb”, dan ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti verb-ing.

Dalam tes TOEFL materi ini sangat sering diujikan.

A. Verbs yang diikuti infinitives (to verb)

Agree : setujuDesire : inginIntend : inginPrepare : menyiapkanTend : cenderungAttempt : berusahaFail : gagalLearn : belajarPretend : berpura-puraTry : mencobaClaim : mengklaimForget : melupakanNeed : membutuhkanRefuse : menolakWant : menginginkanDecide : memutuskanHesitate : ragu-raguOffer : menawarkanSeem : kelihatanWish : berharapDemand : menuntutHope : berharapPlan : berencanaContoh : Marry learned to swim when she was very young.The soldiers are preparing to attack the village.The budget committee decided to postpone this meeting.B. Verbs diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)
Admit : mengakuiAppreciate : menghargaiDelay : menundaMiss : ketinggalan / rinduRegret : menyesalRisk : mengambil resiko/beresikoDeny : menyangkalPostpone : menundaReport : melaporkanSuggest : menyarankanAvoid : menolakEnjoy : menikmatiPractice : berlatihResent : marah, benci, merasa tersinggungCan’t help : tidak betahFinish : menyelesaikanQuit : berhentiResist : menahan, menolakConsider : mempertimbangkanMind : keberatanRecall : mengingatResume : melanjutkan, mulai lagiObject to : keberatanLook forward to : mengharap-harapConfess to : mengakuiApprove of : setuju denganGive up : menyerahWorry about : merasa cemas denganBe better off : lebih baikInsist on : bersikerasSucceed in : berhasilCount on : mengharapkanKeep on : terus , tetapThink about : depend onPut off : menundaThink of : berpikir terhadapContoh : John admitted stealing the money.We enjoyed seeing them again.Michael was considering buying a new car.John gave up smokingMarry insisted on taking the bus instead of the plane.Fred confessed to stealing the jewels.We are not looking forward to going back to school.

C. Verbs yang dapat diikuiti oleh “gerund = verb-ing” atau “infinitives = to verb” tanpa perubahan makna.
Begin : mulaiLike : sukaCan’t stand : tidak betahLove : cintaContinue : melanjutkanPrefer : lebih sukaDread : takut kepadaStart : mulaiHate : benciContoh :
He started to study TOEFL. OR He started studying TOEFL.Joan hates to ride her bicycle. OR Joan hates riding her bicycle to school.He dreads meeting the headmaster. OR He dreads to meet the headmaster.D. Be berapa verbs yang dapat diikuti baik oleh “infinitive = to verb” atau ”gerund = verb-ing”, tapi maknanya berubah. For examples : John stopped studying. (John sedang belajar kemudian berhenti, dan tidak melanjutkan lagi) John stopped to study. (John sedang melakukan suatu pekerjaan, kemudian berhenti unuk belajar) I remember meeting him in a seminar last year. (Aku ingat peristiwa ketika bertemu dia di sebuah seminar tahun lalu.) I remember to meet him today. (Aku ingat bahwa aku harus / berencana untuk menemui dia hari ini.)

Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat yang diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)
Accustomed to : terbiasa denganIntent on : bermaksud sungguh-sungguh untukAfraid of : takut padaInterested in : tertarik padaCapable of : mampu untukSuccessful in : sukses dalamFond of : senang padaTired of : lelah dengan.

For examples
Mitch is afraid of getting married now. I am accustomed to smoking We are accustomed to sleeping late on weekends. Alvaro is intent on finishing school next year. Crag is fond of dancing.

Tambahan* Daftar kata benda yang diikuti oleh the gerund (verb ing)
Choice of : pilihan terhadap/atasPossibility of : kemungkinan terhadapExcuse for : alasan untukIntention of : keinginan untukReason for : alasan untukMethod for / method of : metode….Contoh :

George has excuse for dropping out of school.

There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.

There is no reason for leaving this early.

Connie has developed a method for evaluating this problem.

Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat diikuti oleh infinitive (to verb)
Anxious : khawatirEager : ingin tahuPleased : senangUsual : biasaBoring : membosankanEasy : mudahPrepared : siapCommon : umumDangerous : berbahayaGood : bagusReady : siapDifficult : sulitHard : kerasStrange : anehAble : dapatFor Examples
Muhammad is anxious to see his family.It is dangerous to drive in this weather.We are ready to leave now.It is difficult to pass this test.Do the following exercises The teacher decided (accepting/to accept) the paper.They appreciate (to have/ having) this information.We found it very difficult (reaching / to reach) a decision)Dona is interested in (opening/to open a bar).Marry regrets (to be/ being) the one to have to tell him.George pretended (to be/being) sick yesterday.He demands (to know/knowing) what is going on.Henry shouldn’t risk (to drive/driving) so fast.There is no excuse for (to leave/leaving) the room in this condition.10. She is looking forward to (return/returning) to their country.

“The boy needs cutting his hair” or The boy needs to cut his hair”……?

Kata kerja need diikuti infinitive / to verb hanya jika subjeknya benda hidup. Tapi jika subjeknya benda mati maka kata kerja need diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing) atau diikuti oleh “to be + past participle (Verb 3)”

A. Subjek benda hidup + infinitive
John and his brother need to paint the house.My friend needs to learn SpanishHe will need to driveB. Subjek benda mati + verb ing (to be+ past participle)
The grass needs cutting. OR The grass needs to be painted.The television needs repairing. OR The television needs to be repaired.The composition needs rewriting. OR The composition needs to be written.“Perhatikan”, kita menggunakan “in need of” dengan aturan berikut.

subject + be + in need of + noun

For examples
Jill is in need of money. (Jill needs money)The roof is in need of repairing. (The roof needs to be repaired.) The organization is in need of volunteers. (The organization needs volunteers.)

Exercise

1. It’s too hot and my hair needs … (cut).
The computer needs … (repair).James needs ….. (see) a doctor.Marry will need … (make) a new dress for the party.His car needs … (tune).You will need … to be here at night.The house needs … (paint) soon.
Dalam pertanyaan selalu digunakan kata kerja Bantu atau to be sebelum subjek.

Contoh :
Are you sad?Is he tall?Why are they angry?What do you eat?What will we get?Etc……Selalu beriringan to be / kata kerja Bantu + subject…

Penting*Embedded Questions : Adalah sebuah pertanyaan yang terdapat dalam sebuah kalimat lain ; kalimat positive, negative, atau interrogative. Pelajari susunannya.

Rumusnya :
Subject + verb (phrase) + question word + verbPelajari contoh-contoh berikut !

Question : Where will the meeting take place?

Embedded question : We haven’t ascertained where the meeting will take place.

Q.word Subject verb phrase

Question : Why did the plane land at the wrong airport?

Embedded Questions : The authorities cannot figure out why the plane landed at the

Q.word subject verb

wrong airport.

Embedded Questions :

Do you know where he went?

Could you tell me what time it is?

The professor didn’t know how many students would be in her afternoon class.

I have no idea how long the interview will take.

Tambahan (perkecualian)* Apabila kalimat Tanya nya seperti berikut (question word berfungsi sebagai subject) maka dalam embedded question kalimat Tanya tersebut tidak mengalami perubahan.

Question : Who will paint that picture?

Embedded question : They can’t deide who will paint the picture.

Question : Whose car is parked in the lot?

Embedded Questions : The police can’t determine whose car is parked in the lot.

Question tag* Dalam bahasa Indonesia kita sering mengatakan kamu lapar kan?…..Dia tinggal di Jogja kan?….. dst. Berikut caranya, pelajari baik-baik!
You are sick, aren’t you?He likes tea, doesn’t he?You helped him, didn’t you?You were at home, weren’t you?He can swim, can’t he?Berikut ini beberapa contoh tipe soal dalam tes TOEFL, pelajari baik-baik!

Tipe soal 1

Penggunaan to be

Find the incorrect word/words!

Buying clothes are often a very time-consuming practice because those clothes

A B C

that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.

D

Apa jawaban anda?

Jawaban yang benar adalah A. To be are yang ditulis disana salah, seharusnya to be nya adalah is.

Nah dari sini seharusnya kita kita kritis bertanya, mengapa yang benar is bukan are?

Kapan digunakan is, kapan digunakan are?

Pertama, to be is digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah he, she, atau it atau orang ketiga tunggal (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu tunggal). Contoh The boy is handsome. The cat is funny.

Kedua, to be are digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah you, they, we atau orang ketiga jamak (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu jamak)

Contoh : The boys are handsome. The cats are funny.

Adapun untuk soal di atas to be yang benar adalah is karena subjeknya adalah “buying clothes” (membeli pakaian). “Buying clothes disini dianggap tunggal karena sama maknanya dengan kata it (sesuatu yang kita bicarakan, dan itu tunggal).

Perhatikan kalimat berikut!

Membeli banyak pakaian tidak baik. (Buying clothes is not good.)

Coba kita perhatikan frase membeli banyak pakaian itu termasuk subjek tunggal. Jangan terkecoh pada kata banyak pakaian (clothes)! Frase buying clothes tetap itu dianggap tunggal karena frase itu merupakan sebuah topic/ issue tunggal.

Tipe soal 2

Penggunaan many atau much, a few atau a little

Find the incorrect word/words!

Because they had spent too many time considering the new contract, the students

A B C

lost their opportunity to lease the appartment.

D

Apa jawaban anda?

Jawaban yang benar adalah B.

Karena “…too many time..” adalah salah. Seharusnya too much time.

Mengapa yang benar pakai much bukan many? Bagaimana aturannya?

Rules
Diikuti kata benda terhitung

/countable nouns

Diikuti kata benda tak terhitung /uncountable nounsa, the, some, any

some chairs

many

a lot of

a large number of

a great number of

(a) few

fewer… than

more… than

much (usually in negatives or questions)

a lot of

a large amount of

(a) little

less… than

more … than

Tipe soal 3

Penggunaan pronoun kata ganti; my/me, they/them, himself/hisself?

Find the incorrect word/words!

These televisions are all too expensive for we to buy at this time, but perhaps we

A B C D

will return later.

Apa jawaban anda?

Jawaban yang benar adalah C.

“……………..all too expensive for we to buy……”. Kata for we disini salah, yang benar seharusnya for us.

Mengapa?

Karena kata kita disini berposisi sebagai object of preposition/complement of preposition(objek preposisi)

Contoh mudahnya sebagai berikut, mana yang benar?

I buy an apple for…. (he/him).—————tentu yang benar adalah him

He builds a house for … (they/them.)

Berikut teori lengkapnya:

A. Subject pronouns Vs Object/complement pronouns
I like him.He likes me.They like us.We like them.I write a letter for her.And so on…..Object pronouns

(Complement pronouns)

B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives I have a car.My car is new.He has a house.His house is oldAnd so on….C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns
My hat is red and your hat is blue.My hat is red and yours is blue.Your hat is blue and mine is red.D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns He cooked for me yesterday.He cooked for himself last night.Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.Joan bought herself a new hat.Tipe Soal 4

Embedded question

Find the incorrect word/words!

The next important question we have to decide is when do we have to submit the

A B C D

proposal.

Apa jawaban anda?

Jawaban yang benar adalah pilihan C.

Seharusnya kalimat itu adalah “ The next important question we have to decide is when we have to submit the proposal.”

Jadi tidak pakai do.

Untuk lebih memahaminya perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut;
When do you go?Then question is when you go.Penggunaan do dihilangkan manakala kalimat tersebut berfungsi sebagai objek/complement dari sebuah kalimat (noun clause)

Contoh lain :
Where do you live?I know where you live.Where is your house?He told me where your house is.

Tipe soal 5

Penggunaan either dan neither

Find the incorrect word/words!

George has not completed the assignment yet, and Maria hasn’t neither.

A B C D

Apa jawaban anda?

Jawaban yang benar adalah pada pilihan D.

Seharusnya yang benar adalah Maria hasn’t either, atau Maria has neither.

Kata either artinya juga.

Sama, kata neither artinya juga.

Kedua-duanya digunakan untuk kalimat bermakna negatif.

Anda mau mengatakan :

Dia tidak makan, dan aku juga.

Anda dapat mengatakan :

He does not eat, and neither do I.

Atau

He does not eat, and I don’t either.

Jadi rumusnya :

Neither + auxiliary verb + subject

Subject + auxiliary verb + not + either

Tipe soal 6

Susunan modifier dan complement yang dibalik

John decided to buy in the morning a new car, but in the afternoon

A B C

he changed his mind.

D

Apa jawaban anda?

Jawaban yang benar adalah B.

Seharusnya kalimat diatas “John decided to buy a new car in the morning, but ………..”

Jadi masalah di atas terkait dengan posisi complement(objek) dengan modifier (keterangan) yang di awali preposis yang terbalik. Seharusnya complement dulu, baru modifier yang diawali preposisi.

Pelajari teori berikut.

Normal Sentence Pattern in English


Subject Verb Complement ModifierJohn and I ate a pizza last night

We studied “present perfect” last week.






The man makes handicrafts in a village.Linking verb : am, is, are

Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.

Verb complement

Correct : She drove the car on the street.

Verb complement

Tipe soal 7

Penggunaan kata other

Some of the plants in this store require very little care, but this one needs

A B

much more sunlight than the others ones.

C D

Tipe soal 8

Penggunaan tenses dalam adverbial clause yang menggunakan kata after dan before

After George had returned to his house, he was reading a book.

A B C D

After + s + had + v3………s + v2

After I had taken a bath, I prayed.

After I had taken a bath, I was sleepy.

Before I ate , I had taken a bath.
We sleep.

He drinks tea.

I go home.

I do not stand.

We do not walk.

She does not sing.

We do not have money.

Do you smoke?

Do I sleep?

Does she sing?

Do you eat rice?

What do you eat?

Does she drink milk?

What does she drink?

Who do you go with?

What do you work for?

Last night I met a ghost.

Yesterday they walked.

Yesterday I did not eat.

Yesterday he did not smile.

Did you go to the beach yesterday?

What did you write last night?

Tomorrow I will meet the director.

Tomorrow I will go to Bali.

Will you fly?

Will you sleep?

Will she cry?

What will you eat?

Who will you go with?

I have eaten.

She has gone.

They have left jogja.

Has she gone?

Have they left jogja?

Have I eaten?

What have I eaten?

I am sitting.

He is reading.

They are talking.

Are they studying?

What are they studying?

They are not playing.

I have eaten now.

At that time I had eaten.

At that time she had gone.

At that time she had not gone.

Now we are studying English.

At that time we were studying.

At that time I would call you.

She is beautiful.

They are rich.

My mother is pretty.

I am not hungry.

She is not famous.

She is not angry.

We are not at home.

Are you crazy?

Am I beautiful?

Why are you sad?

Why am I tired?

Why are they sad?

Last night I was afraid.

Yesterday they were angry.

Yesterday I was not healthy.

Yesterday they were not sick.

Were you happy last night?

Was crazy last night?

Why were you sad last night?

Next year I will be happy.

Will she be happy?

Will she be mine?

Why will you be here?

They have been here.

He has been satisfied.

Why has he been satisfied?

Why have you been disappointed?

Tipe soal 9

Subject-verb agreement

Many theories on conserving the purity of water has been proposed,

A B

but no one has been as widely accepted as this one.

C D

The girls .are/is…in bad condition.

The boy playing toys…..naughty.

They boys are

I eat.

You eat.

They eat.

He eats.

She eats.

The lady eats.

The ladies eat.

The lady ..has/have.. a car.

The ladies ..has/have.. a car.

Tipe soal 10

Beberapa kata yang tidak pernah digunakan dalam bentuk continuous

The food that Mark is cooking in the kitchen is smelling delicious.

A B C D
KnowUnderstandHaveBelieveHateNeedHearLoveAppearSeeLikeSeemSmellWantTasteWishSoundOwnTipe soal 11

Pemahaman tenses dasar

After John eaten dinner, he wrote several letters and went to bed.

A B C D

Tipe soal 12

Keterangan waktu pada tenses dasar

The manager has finished working on the report last night, and now she will

A B C

begin to write the other proposal.

D

I have eaten now.

I have eaten two hours ago.

S + v2

S + have/has + v3

I have eaten now.

I ate two hours ago.

I have bought a dictionary today.

I have bought a dictionary this morning.

Tipe soal 13

Masalah pronoun

Because Sam and Michelie had done all of the work theirselves., they were

A B C

unwilling to give the results to Joan.

D

Tipe soal 14

Masalah conditional sentence

Daniel said that if he had to do another homework tonight, he would not be able

A B C

to attend the concert.

D

TIPE 1

If I meet Mr. Yanto, I will address him.

If I get money , I will treat you.

If it rains, I will wear a raincoat.

———————————————————————–

TIPE 1

If I am hungry, I will buy some food.

If you are sick, I will take care of you.

If he comes, I will be happy.

Tipe 2

If I brought money, I would treat you.

If he met me, I would be happy.

If they helped me, I would thank them.

————————————————————————

TIPE 2

If I were healthy, I would work.

If I were rich , I would build a villa

Tipe 3

If I had brought money , I would have given you some food.

If I had passed, I would have studied abroad.

If they had come, they would have helped us.

If I had been healthy, I would have helped you.

If I had been rich, I would have built a villa.

Tipe soal 15

Prepositions + gerunds (Verb-ing)

After to take the medication the patient became drowsy and more manageable.

A B C D

Tipe soal 16

Verbs + prepositions followed by gerund

We insist on you leaving the meeting before any further outburst take place.

A B C D
Approve ofGive upRely onWorry aboutBe better offInsist onSucceed inCount onKeep onThink aboutDepend onPut offThink ofTipe soal 17

Question tag

It has been a long time since we have talked to John , isn’t it?

A B C D

You are sick, aren’t/isn’t you?

You will go, won’t you?

He sleeps, doesn’t he?

Tipe soal 18

Verbs + prepositions followed the word to as preposition

(object to, look forward to, confess to)

Henry objects to our buying this house without the approval of our attorney, and

A B C

John does so.

D

I want to go.

He comes to sleep.

Tipe soal 19

Verbs that are followed by gerund / verb ing

Rita enjoyed to be able to meet several Congress members during her vocation.

A B C D
AdmitDelayMissRegretRiskAppreciateDenyPostponeReportSuggestAvoidEnjoyPracticeResentCan’t helpFinishQuitResistConsiderMindRecallResumeTipe soal 20

Verbs that are always followed by infinitive (to + verb)

After being indicted for his part in a bank robbery , the reputed mobster decided find

A B C D

another attorney.
AgreeDesireIntendPrepareTendAttemptFailLearnPretendTryClaimForgetNeedRefuseWantDecideHesitateOfferSeemWishDemandHopePlanStriveLISTENING COMPREHENSION

KUNCI UMUM

Kunci 1 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk perintah (direction) pada masing-masing bagian (part) dengan baik sebelum hari- H ujian.

Kunci 2 : Baca pilihan-pilihan jawaban pada masing-masing soal sebanyak mungkin ketika narrator sedang membacakan directions dan contoh soal (example)

Kunci 3 : Dengarkan dengan penuh konsentrasi dan fokuskan perhatian Anda pada percakapan yang sedang Anda dengarkan.

Kunci 4 : Maksimalkan kemampuan listening Anda pada soal-soal pertama pada masing-masing part.

Kunci 5 : Fokuskan pendengaran Anda pada pembicara kedua.

Kunci 6 : Jangan panik bila tidak bisa memahami kata demi kata dalam percakapan secara komplit. Anda hanya perlu menangkap ide atau isi percakapan.

Kunci 7 : Bila Anda sama sekali tidak bisa memahami apa yang diucapkan pembicara kedua, pilihlah jawaban yang paling berbeda dari apa yang telah Anda dengar.

Kunci 8 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk functional expression (agreement, uncertainty, suggestion, surprise), idiomatic expression, dan situasi ketika pembicaraan dilakukan.

LONGER CONVERSATION

Kunci 9 : Ketika narrator membacakan direction part B anda sebaiknya membaca pilihan jawaban secara sekilas kemudian mrekamnya dan memperkirakan tema apa yang akan menjadi perbincangan.

Kunci 10 : ketika menyimak conversation, anda harus mengetahui apa tema/topic yang dibicarakan

Kunci 11 : waspadalah terhadap masing-masing pertanyaan.

Kunci 12 : Cermati kondisi dan situasi yang terjadi selama percakapan berlangsung, yakni menyangkut tempat dan waktu pembicaraan, apa dan siapa yang dibicarakan.

Kunci 13 : Bila anda memiliki waktu, lihatlah pilihan-pilihan jawban yang tertera pada lembar soal dan temukan kata kuncinya.

Kunci 14 : Waspadailah pembicaraan pada kalimat-kalimat pertama karena biasanya akan menjadi topic bagi kalimat-kalimat selanjutnya.

Kunci 15 : Fokuskan pendengaran anda pada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan pertanyaan 5-wh (what, who, when, where, why) dan how.

Kunci 16 : buatlah kesiompulan\inferasi atas situasi yang terjadi saat pembicaraan dilakukan.

PENTING!!!”

(PELAJARI EXPRESI-EXPRESI BERIKUT)
Turned out well : sangat baikWatch your step : hati-hatiTake it easy : santai ajaThat’s it : ya itu / beresYou’ve got to be kidding : menyatakan keterkejutanMake one’s own mind : berpikir sendiriStand on one’s own foot : mandiri“Thanks for the attention and forgive me any of my lacks!

Good Luck!

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